After the death of Charles II, the last king
of the House of Austria, the French Bourbons arrived on February of 1701. The
dynasty begins with Philip V, grandson of Louis XIV.
King Philip V (1700 - 1746)
Soon after initiating his reign the Fortress
is on fire, with the consequent loss of jewels and works of art: paintings by
Velázquez, Van Dick and all the masters.
The fire, took place on the Christmas Eve of
1734 and the destruction of the symbol of power of Austrias dynasty can be
considered. Two years later, the reconstruction of the new Royal Palace began.
The project was in charge to the Italian
Philip Juvara, but before the excessive cost of its realization, it was
considered another simpler budget by the Italian John Baptist Sachetti. Madrid
lived during the reign of this monarch one of its more expansive and creative
head magistrate of the City, Marquis of Vadillo, looked for the help and the
advice of Pedro Ribera, to carry out a project of modernization of Madrid.
The young architect, still with strong opposition on the part of the
Town Council and of the Italian architects raised the Toledo Bridge, planed the
border of the Manzanares where he raised the church of the Virgin of the Port,
the Saint Ferdinand's Hospice designed, present Municipal Museum, etc.
The tasks for embellishment and
modernization continue with the creation of the Academies of the Language,
History and Medicine. It was based on the National Library and the Tapestries
Factory, in addition to several churches and palaces.
Succeeded Philip V by his son Ferdinand VI
who married the Portuguese Bárbara of Braganza who, in narrow
collaboration with the Marquis of the Ensenada, continued with the task of
embellishment of Madrid, although in a more calmer way.
King Ferdinand VI (1746 -
During his reign, the Royal Salesas and the
whole neighborhood that today takes that name rise. Also it is necessary to
place in his salary the foundation of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of Saint
Ferdinand, the Alcalá Gate's bullring and the Recoletos Gate.
Charles III considered as the best Mayor of
Madrid, arrived in the capital coming from Naples when passing away of pain by
the death of the wife his brother Ferdinand VI. His interest in modernizing the
country was reflected in Madrid, with the creation of a sewer system net, public
illumination and paved of streets.
King Charles III (1759 -
In spite of being known as one of the
biggest beneficient of Madrid, it is necessary to say that his victorious
entrance was not anything calm, since soon after he was forced to cease to his
prime minister Esquilache, before the protest of the town that wanted of more
serious problems was not arranged to allow that the layers were used excessive
respect and the use of the hats that hid their faces was prohibited.
Calmed the spirits, he could continue with
his task of modernizing a city that becomed echo of the changes that were taking
place in the world. There is a very concrete zone of Madrid, that somehow
symbolizes his reign. It is the Prado Walk with the fountains of Neptune,
Cibeles and the Alcalá Gate.
King Charles IV (1788 -
Completing the scientific task the
Astronomical Observatory rises, is located the Botanical Garden, the Museum of
Natural Sciences present Museum of the Prado and the Royal Hospital. Another
event of vital importance for the Spanish town was the creation of a system of
lottery, in December of 1763.
On the 31 of March of 1767, at twelve at
night, he ordered the Jesuits to leave the country. A year before the French
Revolution had taken place in Madrid. His heir, Charles IV count already more
than 40 years when he raises the throne.
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by JLL & JRP
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