After the death of Charles II, the last king of the House of Austria, the French Bourbons arrived on February of 1701. The dynasty begins with Philip V, grandson of Louis XIV.

King Philip V (1700 - 1746)

Soon after initiating his reign the Fortress is on fire, with the consequent loss of jewels and works of art: paintings by Velázquez, Van Dick and all the masters.

The fire, took place on the Christmas Eve of 1734 and the destruction of the symbol of power of Austrias dynasty can be considered. Two years later, the reconstruction of the new Royal Palace began.

The project was in charge to the Italian Philip Juvara, but before the excessive cost of its realization, it was considered another simpler budget by the Italian John Baptist Sachetti. Madrid lived during the reign of this monarch one of its more expansive and creative periods.

The head magistrate of the City, Marquis of Vadillo, looked for the help and the advice of Pedro Ribera, to carry out a project of modernization of Madrid.

The young architect, still with strong opposition on the part of the Town Council and of the Italian architects raised the Toledo Bridge, planed the border of the Manzanares where he raised the church of the Virgin of the Port, the Saint Ferdinand's Hospice designed, present Municipal Museum, etc.

The tasks for embellishment and modernization continue with the creation of the Academies of the Language, History and Medicine. It was based on the National Library and the Tapestries Factory, in addition to several churches and palaces.

Succeeded Philip V by his son Ferdinand VI who married the Portuguese Bárbara of Braganza who, in narrow collaboration with the Marquis of the Ensenada, continued with the task of embellishment of Madrid, although in a more calmer way.

King Ferdinand VI (1746 - 1759)

During his reign, the Royal Salesas and the whole neighborhood that today takes that name rise. Also it is necessary to place in his salary the foundation of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of Saint Ferdinand, the Alcalá Gate's bullring and the Recoletos Gate.

Charles III considered as the best Mayor of Madrid, arrived in the capital coming from Naples when passing away of pain by the death of the wife his brother Ferdinand VI. His interest in modernizing the country was reflected in Madrid, with the creation of a sewer system net, public illumination and paved of streets.

King Charles III (1759 - 1788)

In spite of being known as one of the biggest beneficient of Madrid, it is necessary to say that his victorious entrance was not anything calm, since soon after he was forced to cease to his prime minister Esquilache, before the protest of the town that wanted of more serious problems was not arranged to allow that the layers were used excessive respect and the use of the hats that hid their faces was prohibited.

Calmed the spirits, he could continue with his task of modernizing a city that becomed echo of the changes that were taking place in the world. There is a very concrete zone of Madrid, that somehow symbolizes his reign. It is the Prado Walk with the fountains of Neptune, Cibeles and the Alcalá Gate.

King Charles IV (1788 - 1808)

Completing the scientific task the Astronomical Observatory rises, is located the Botanical Garden, the Museum of Natural Sciences present Museum of the Prado and the Royal Hospital. Another event of vital importance for the Spanish town was the creation of a system of lottery, in December of 1763.

On the 31 of March of 1767, at twelve at night, he ordered the Jesuits to leave the country. A year before the French Revolution had taken place in Madrid. His heir, Charles IV count already more than 40 years when he raises the throne.

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