It has been alluded to repeatedly on the rapid demographic growth that Madrid experimented from the moment of the arrival of the Court.

From a discrete populace of a village in the mid 16th century, it almost immediately had an upward growth, even though there would be recesses along the way, characterization of the life and mood of the city during the entire 17th century.

Many writers massaged different numbers, and in some cases varied notably. Here more than numbers, we want to insist on the sharp growth that Madrid experienced. From the moment of its adaptation to the Court, the number of citizens from 15,000/20,000 in 1561 would increase rapidly.

First came the aristocracy, with a throng of titles and positions that served in the Royal House. Secondly, a few years later the many civil servants followed. This way Philip II developed a more complex bureaucratic machine of the state.

The third wave, the immigrants started to establish themselves, coming from the armies or the country people from the rural communities. During these times nobility, aristocrats and upper middle-class demanded slaves and servants. The migration was set and now in the 17th century with a stable system of the Court, it was more solid and consistent.

We cannot forget the growing number of clergy, monks and nuns that started to settle in the Court soon after 1561. With only these facets enumerated, it is easy to imagine that the populace already established in Madrid, it grew in an intense form more that a sensible form.

Synthesizing, a rough graph drawn of the Madrilenian Society would be this: first a percentage of aristocracy and civil servants, from different backgrounds. The first generally nobility, and the second upper middle-class or graduates, with some exceptions.

Second a percentage of nobility or aristocracy; with or without direct participation in the courtly life or the inner circles near the king.

This nobility that was overtly remiss to move their residences to Madrid during the reign of Philip II were gradually establishing themselves at the return of the Court from Valladolid in 1605. In the 17th century this part was more than a fourth of the population.

A percentage also enormously larger was the cleric, social religious estates with enormous weight and encouragement in the Spanish society of that time. They were clergymen, ecclesiastics, monks, and nuns, in a number that almost spoke of invasion in the new Court.

Not only for the amount of religious orders that they would establish in the city, but also for the required presence of the church in courtly and political circles.

In addition to the parishes and convents, the religious estate settled in the city, responding to the needs with sufficient clerics to attend the housing of the different orders, schools, chapels, hospitals, brotherhoods and fraternities.

Although the nature of the Court was essentially political and religious, we cannot forget the expanding population that required services and determined products. This was supplied by the middle-class that corresponded to three fronts.

The merchants and salesmen, from carts to luxury items, to those of basic necessity. The artisans or manufacturers, that covered the needs for clothing, utensils, tools, specialized objects, etc. to an important populace. Moreover, the professionals or the learned, within these were not only the many bureaucrats, but also moneylenders, doctors, lawyers, writers, artists, etc.

Finally, the simple people or manuals laborers, and in Madrid they were dedicated fundamentally to servitude. Any noble or upper middle-class family employed as a minimum two or three people of this nature.

In the Madrilenian Society of the 17th century, its was unthinkable, for any noble, merchant, bureaucrat or upper middle-class family, not to have servants at home. Not having even one servant, they were considered in the worst and lowest social condition.

Normally the disposition of a maid or servant, it is enough to say that they were proud to be one. So much more if their lords or masters had a worthy position in society.

Many anecdotes have been told to illustrate this last point, from the number of servants that a rich family exhibited in the balconies and at celebrations, from the pride of Velázquez, to place before all his titles and positions', including that of "Royal Painter," was the "Servant of the Monarch."

Towards the end of the 16th century, during the last years of the life of Philip II who died in 1598, the population of Madrid was around 100,000 inhabitants, although some writers have lowered it to 80,000 and others have raised it to 120,000.

Without a doubt, with the Court moving away to Valladolid the populace of Madrid deflated sharply, with a loss of more than 50,000 people, according to a historian.

But the return of the Court to the village on the Manzanares in 1605, counted again for the rapidly escalating demographics, with some shrinking produced by different causes, such as the pestilence, famine, high mortality rates, etc.

During the 17th century, the populace did not get below 100,000, such as the 154,000 in 1685; all of this within the same physical area because the growth was absorbed in the capital by fragmenting homes and using the patios of homes to build rooms.

In fact, the area of Madrid did not expand from 1625 because of the city wall that was built by Philip IV. The growing exploitation of the interior urban area did grow, and considerably, by the hygienic, sanitary and health problems. At the end of the 17th century, these were substantial and worrisome, with abundant cries of alarm regarding this explosive situation.

This society, from nobility and the middle-class to the common people, had two basic distractions: The theater and the festivals.

There were numerous comedy theaters, although the best known, and the only ones that continued in time as local theaters, were the Cruz and the Pacheca, and later the Príncipe.

The pictures shows:

- Suit and woman dress for small proprietors and merchants during the first half of 16th. century.
The difference, as for dress fashion, is more noticed in the man than in the woman
because she still remembers the Middle Ages .

- Oligarchies' fashions in the first half of 16th. century.
The most remarkable thing is the sleeves and the man's knifed shorts
It is also remarkable the profusion of jewels in both sexes,
reflection of the ostentation desires on an unjust society.

Fashion in Philip II's times based on prince's Charles portrait
and in another one corresponding to the infant Isabel Clara Eugenia.
It highlights the over-fur jacket, the baggy trousers and the man's knifed shoes
and the feminine luxury and complicated suit.
It is of noticing that, in spite of the black color of the royal robes,
the fashion goes for other ways.

Oligarchies' fashions in the middle of 17th century
based on infant's Maria portrait, daugther of Philip III,
as it can be seen in the Incarnation Monastery.

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