The study of the History of Madrid frecuently opens up during the fundamental period of the Austria's, being located suddenly in the transcendental year of 1561, when Philip II orders to transfer the Court to this village.

It is forgotten or overlooked, the long previous century, as if it was a historical last lagoon, as if nothing had happened in Madrid during this period, and the reality is very different, although it is necessary to admit that, the political and cultural importance taken place later was such that it darkened the previous matters.

The first half of the 16th century was, mainly, the emperor Charles' reign, and although Madrid is not convulsed by big changes or events, it did not remain static.

Following a previous impulse, it continued growing, and certain decisive facts took place, in the general context of the country.

As soon as Charles I began his reign when all over Castile something ran like the gunpowder, the dissatisfaction and the distrust against the new foreign king, and against his ministers and consultants.

The Communities War also affected to the life of the village, dividing the population into two factions. Many Madrilenian noblemen remained faithful to the king, although they were not organized in active military factions.

The Austrian emperor Charles I's domains.

The garnish of the Fortress remained loyal to the king, that could not be acepted by the Communers Board. They had taken the control of the Town Council in 1520, surrounding the Fortress, although making inmediately a pact of mutual respect that was soon broken down.

Before surrendering those from the Fortress to the Madrilenian Communers Board, it was made a pact again. With this pact, the Board accepted the fact that after the surrender, people and their properties would be respected.

In April of 1521, with the Communers defeat in Villalar, people calmed down, and very soon after, nobody in the village boasted of revolution.

Although a part of the village had rebelled against Charles I, some others had remained faithful, so it was difficult to punish Madrid or those who never accepted the Emperor.

According to the old chronicler, Charles I showed a kindly affection for the village, soon after of the Communers revolution, when he stayed in Madrid because he was ill of some fevers, declared in one of his many trips between Toledo and Valladolid.

During his convalescence in the Fortress, he could appreciate the fresh air and nice weather of Madrid.

In 1525, very soon after this stay, the king from France, Francis I, was made prisoner in the battle of Pavía, by the imperial troops and transferred to Madrid, where the emperor stayed.

For a long time there was discussion subject about the place of the French sovereign's lodging.

Today, it seems for sure that the first days he passed in the tower of the large Lujanes' house, in the middle of the heart of the city, in the old Plaza San Salvador (today the Villa Square) but then he moved at once to the Fortress, where he spent the rest of his madrilenian captivity.

In spite of becoming prisoner, the refined French king's elegance caused such sensation in the village and such a lot was spoken about the behavior and the prisoner's distinction that, according to the legend, he lifted certain displeasure and envy in the emperor's person.

In 1526 and after several months, the called Concord of Madrid was signed, returning Francis I to France, although he left his two daughters in Madrid in guarantee to complete the made pact.

Two years later, in 1528, the emperor summoned courts in Madrid, to name the future Philip II Prince of Asturias. This act took place in the church of the monastery of the Hieronymites, in the Prado, that it might have been simple and quick, because of the scarce resonances in the columnists.

In 1542, a partly fire destroyed the old Guadalajara Gate, so the emperor ordered its total demolition, with the intention of enlarging and to relieve the traffic of all type of carriages and the most remarjable people in the Guadalajara Street - today Mayor Street - moved in the Village.

The old gate that had been part of the Christian wall of the 12th century, for a long time with a defensive and strategic purpose, being totally put in the Village, once this had grown extraordinarily toward the east.

Although the madrilenian town treated it with adoration, and the columnists described it with panegyrics, exaggerating its values still after its demolish, the gate hindered the internal circulation of a lively and prosperous village. The urban growth of Madrid was unstoppable.

This growth, had always been operated towards the east because of the best conditions in the land, and already in time of the Catholic Kings, the limits of the village were at the Sun Gate in the east, at the Cebada Square in the south, and at the Callao Square in the north.

The construction licenses did not cease, and in the emperor's times, the limits of Madrid comprised a considerable surface. It is said that certain gates have no architectural value, being just big entrance and exit gates joined to a tapial or modest fence.

These gates or extreme points of limit were one by Atocha, then in the Antón Martin Square, one by Alcalá, then in the modern cross of Seville and Alcalá Streets, and one by San Luis or Fuencarral, near the modern Gran Vía, next to San Luis' Net.

In 1550, Charles I stayed once more in the Fortress of Madrid, he ordered the execution of important architectural and ornamental reformations, so that the old and ruinous castle became a palace in accordance with the times of the Renaissance, then the emperor felt as an authentic paladin.

Along his reign, numerous religious and monastic foundations have been carried out and moved away, which proved that the village was not in the 16th century, a miserable and mean place.

In 1523, it is founded the dominican sanctuary of Our Lady from Atocha that will be soon the worshipped and visited place by the madrilenians. In 1541, St Louis Bishop's parish has founded, helped by the one of St Ginés, to cover the religious demand of the populous neighbourhood arisen at this point.

In 1547, according to the tradition, the prince Philip founded the augustinian convent of St Philip the Real, located in the Sun Gate whose high tiers were the most lively places where people gossiped in the village.

In 1552, Antón Martín founded the hospital that took his name, in the outskirts of Atocha Gate, for venereal and contagious illnesses.

And in 1564, the emperor's daughter, the princess Jane, the sister of the future Philip II and the wife of the king from Portugal and the mother of the unlucky Sebastian, already widow, founded the Franciscans convent, known soon as the Royal Discalced, in where her father's treasurer's palace was located, Alonso Gutiérrez, where the princess was born.

One of the best constructions lifted in this first half of the 16th century, among so many losses, we fortunately conserve, it is the well-known Bishop's Chapel, built closed to the San Andrés' old parish.

It was conceived as a family vault by the rich and powerful Vargas's family, who had been patrons of the legendary San Isidro, but also as a worthy shelter for the very popular mortal remains of the patron saint of Madrid, because in fact they were not such, since the mummified body of Isidro was conserved in magnificent state.

The chapel was founded by Gutierre of Vargas and Carvajal, bishop of Plasencia, who finished it in 1535.

The construction began at the beginning of the century, toward the year 1520, and the chapel was conceived in the Gothic style, already for that time something out of step, with a wide ship but short, of magnificent height with cruceria vaults.

However, the decoration was already made in the modern plateresque style, with the paternal sepulchers, the own of the bishop, the beautiful entrance doors and the splendid major altarpiece, masterpieces of the plateresque in Madrid whose author was Francisc Giralte.

At the beginning of the 16th century, the Vargas, as old patrons of San Isidro were given the incorrupt body of the Saint. So, they decided to lift the chapel, but San Andrés' parish priest won't cease in his zeal of recovering the valuable mummy, getting a papal bull of the Pope Urban III, for which the case was settled down, declaring as the true possessor of the mortal remains from San Isidro to the parochial temple, in which they will remain until the 19th century.

The pictures shows:

- Emperor Charles, the first king belonging to the Austria's dinasty, painted by Pantoja de la Cruz.

- The Austrian emperor Charles I' coat of arms.

- Communers leader Padilla, Bravo and Maldonado being decapitated.
Painting by Antonio Gisbert - Madrid's Deputies Congress.

- To the left the so-called The Lujanes' tower where,
according to popular legend,
French king Francis I was held prisoner.
To the right, The Lujanes' house..

- Royal Barefoot 's convent facade, foundation by Juana of Austria, sister of king Charles I.

- Bishop's Chapel - The Carvajals' sepulchre.

- Bishop's Chapel main altarpiece.

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