Apart from the literary production, more inclined to the poetry than to the prose side, of the new cultural institutions and the evening entertainment in the nobleness mansions, what defines those romantic years of revolution is the appearance of new newspapers, from which politics were made of.

Newspapers purely literary as "Spanish Letters", created by Carnecero, "The Weekly Spanish Painteresque", that Mesonero introduced in 1836, "The Critic", "The Artist", "The Spanish Magazine"; but above all, politic newspapers, as "The Bee", "The National Mail", "The Pilot", that were written by personalities as Pacheco, Bravo Murillo, Alcalá Galiano, Rios Rosas, Donoso or Sartorius.

If the clubs and athenaeums are the meeting point of the middle class for literary discussions, the newspaper presses are the place to be for the political ones. In reality, the poetry, the customs and the newspaper got together and formed a circle with the political parties and the government.

It is a middle class that did not find in Madrid big industrial companies and no more professional careers than lawyer or doctor. Therefore dedicated, after the passage of the literature and the newspaper, to the politics as a vehicle to take into practice the ideas for the nation, for the progress and for the country.

There were times of revolution and this together with the romantic fever made it impossible to create new alternatives: they were a poet, journalist or politician without any contradiction.

It was formed in the capital, as an opening to the games of the parties of the liberalism, a new political class, that ascended from the literature and the newspaper, the headquarters of the new parties, the moderates and the progressives.

And as a human base in which construct their high position, a bundle of bureaucrats "looking at the ministerial movement", that are employed one day and they wonder the street the next, from the early morning hours, around the ministry, with the object of been seen.

They formed what Valera called the "custom-made proletarian", a sector of the middle class which future consisted of obtaining, nor losing or recovering employment with the state.

The character of this class and its defenders, that reached certain category in their parties and the final result of their presence in politics, had something to do with their origin and with the relationship that these parties establish later on with the government, with the population and the army.

On the bridge of the political revolution and after the conversion of Madrid as the capital of another state, it transpired what a fine analyst of the era and excellent observer of the madrilenian society, Juan Valera, classified as the social revolution.

But contrary to all concepts it could be understood, if you had the French mentality, that the whole content of this revolution consisted in the nationalization and sale of the clergy and religious orders's properties.

The town, writes Valera, did not hate to the aristocracy, but to the priests, to whom they blame for previous misfortunes: nobody, not even the aristocracy, went in its defense when Mendizabal decided to sell their possessions to alleviate the Treasury and to increase the wealth of the nation.

Apart from a middle class of authors, lawyers and journalists caused by the political revolution, was transpiring, during Larra's time, and felt immediately an incessant impulse to grow, the "new nobility", that originated from the second half of the 18th. century, introduced due to their capital in the highest society during the forties, to dominate Madrid's social and economic life until the end of the century.

It is the nobility formed by the "copious bait" of the vacant lands offered at the Parliament's arena to the hunger of the new classes, as Perez Galdos observed, "they sold straw and later bought meadows from the friars; whom gave meals to the troops and established the progress…".

It can not be define with major accuracy the character and the source of the new nobility's wealth. Almost all, came to the capital from the periphery, following the rules established by the Old Regime for the merchant's families, noble some of them, that gather in small and medium villages in Santander, the País Vasco, the Rioja, etc.

It also came from the interior plateau, some offspring were sent to Madrid with the object of supplying the city or to establish the commercial networks that united the capital to the seaports.

That is how Madrid was formed, next to the middle class of the authors, lawyers and politicians, a business bourgeoisie that dominated the commerce, including the monetary one, since the second half of the 18th. century, and it was ready to multiply quickly their gains, serving totally and willingly to the liberal state.

When they arrived in Madrid, those bourgeois families establish themselves as merchants of wine, straw and linen. Later on when they gather a few savings, they had the good fortune of been available while the aristocracy declined and the state was caving in and both solicited their loans or provisions..

They went in their rescue helping to clean up the nobiliary patrimonies and transferring their own part of the real state possessions when the noblemen renegotiated their debts, buying the properties that the state, pressured by the income needs more than guided towards the revolutionary purpose, taken from friars and monks, or acting as suppliers of weapons or clothing to the government troops that were sent to combat the carlist disloyalty.

Later on there was no remedy. The new nobles, linked with the state, converted Madrid into the capital of the finances and it became, itself, the monetary provider.

It opened banks and obtained the titles for the debts, of the famous "three percent", and got closer to the crown and touch with its hands the political power, started to frequent the aristocrat's walk ways and later on venture into the nobility's salons, opened to them now, because they are now part of society.

It was not hard to be admitted into society and to become nobility, gathered titles that a prodigal crown, more than generous in the nobiliary attractions, did not scant to the triumphants of speculations.

There were the permanent nucleus of the new oligarchy, moderate or progressive, with unstoppable tendency towards moderation, the protagonists of Madrid's social life that, the dukes, counts and marquis' of the old school had to accept by their side, as moneylenders first and as relatives later.

The ones that make the new Madrid to their likings, merchants, capitalists and bankers as Caballero, Urquijo, Murga, Rivas, Chávarri, Norzagaray, Pérez Seoane, Fagoaga, Remisa, Carriquiri, Manzanedo, Bringas, Gaviria and Sevillano, to name a few.


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