Madrid needed, above all, a mirror to look itself on, "so that the city would quit the illusions and realises it has wasted the time on thinking it is perfect ".

And actually it had plenty of spontaneous willing to give it all mirrors in the world: París, London and Berlin become, from middle century, into books open by exiled and travellers, so that Madrid knows what it is and learns to transform itself, and so achieve the rank of capital deserved.

Deserving a monarchy on first instance, deserving a big nation afterwards, deserving a Republic further on, and finally deserving when they all disappeared from Spain to be proclaimed under 1978 Constitution as "State Capital.".

Madrid was Monarchy capital, Nation capital, Republic capital, Spain capital, State capital.

The big four ideas and final added that encouraged and accompanied Madrid growth from 1834 could be sum up as follows, as the different impulses received to escape from its regrettable condition, of prostration and apathy.

First one rises immediately after the death of Fernando VII, which opens the eyes of an small group of madrilenians previously satisfied of their Villa and Court, but when having the first chance of looking under a different light and express freely, regret the city abandoning and propose some remedies to make of Madrid the "Monarchy Capital".

Second one outlines due to the 1868 revolution and pretends to transform the city into a prosperous bourgeoisie capital, but will remain as one among the dreamt Madrid.

Nation can hardly stand on its feet and whilst forgets all plans to built the new future capital, it relays again on crown, church and army's hands.

Third one emerges shyly to the warmth of the changes coming with the new century and bursts in 1930, as a proposal to built the "Big Madrid", - thought out by professionals and intellectuals of the 1914 generation -, as worthy capital of the Republic.

The fourth, drawn on a fascist rhetoric, inherits from the previous one the master guidelines for its growth and formulates them again, with the only aim of raising the big capital worth for the new Spain.

The final added does not obey to any new idea about Madrid. Constitution fathers call the state and the Villa of Madrid, that is already a metropolis, declares itself as capital.

If we want to personalise, Mesonero, Fernández de los Ríos and Azaña would show up as builders of the three first ideas for Madrid - deserving a monarchy, deserving a nation, deserving a republic -, although the paternity of the fourth cannot be assumed by a single person, in case we did so, we should point out Pedro Bidagor, General 1941 Plan author, on its technical dimension and same General Franco on politic.

Each of them, in any case, would not be comprehensible without attending what the city was at each moment, and social classes and politic power, which guided its growth on each occasion.

First one appears on the age of the liberal revolution, as summary of the ambitions of the buyers of buildings and alienated plots during the big deal carried out by Mendizábal.

The second one on the democratic revolution years, as dream of a medium class which guides the revolutionary people and mixes with the nation.

The third is the one of the professionals who in alliance with the organised working class, briefly reconstruct the idea of unit among revolutionary people, to bring up the Republic.

The fourth one inherits all of the previous one under a fascist and imperial rhetoric, to give in an urbanisation abandoned to the will of big property promoters.

And the fifth, or better to say, the final added, is only a consequence of constitutional consensus.

Without receiving the so overexposed heat on 1931, Madrid becomes in 1978, by constitutional declaration, from capital of Spain into State capital.

To the static and almost essentialist vision of Madrid as artificial capital, guilty, frustrated and torn out of its secondary place by a dictatorial and centralist regimen will, it will oppose the one of a city which surpasses on a century and a half the limits derived of its origins as court of a vainly imperial monarchy and the break and ruin of such monarchy, at the dawn of our days.

In time to this hard march, Madrid assumes, gradually its function as capital of the state and of the emerging nation. Such is the vision proposed on pages to follow.

With a real catastrophic starting point, Madrid began to change its morphology as city, its classes structure and its function as capital from its beginning - during the fifty years of that century - the railway network, the big problem of water supplying was solved and later on they decided to demolish its fence.

Afterwards, the city consolidated it relevant position on the joint of the spanish economy with the residency, on the historical centre, of the most important anonymous societies and the installation of the big banks.

During the first thirty years of this century, to its growing importance as communication, commercial and financial centre, it added a new role as intellectual, cultural and politic capital, due to a massive immigration of medium class and day labourers, and the irruption of a urban people who kept until 1930, the language of popular revolution and the mobilisation for a republic which would declare for the very first time, Madrid as constitutional capital of the state.

It was in Madrid, because of the weight of its working and medium classes, the place where the Spanish Monarchy collapsed, in the clamour of a party, who had adopted the language and manners of the old popular revolutions against the king.

Madrid had this way become, at April 1931, and for it own right, on capital of Spain being the Republic capital.

The rest, up to yesterday itself, began with a long and painful break up until in Madrid could be recovered again and later on increase, the bases that had served for its grown of the first third of century.

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