It is comprehensible that the disentail of Church lands affected Madrid, as in this town, despite all demolitions made by French monarch, there still were 146 religious buildings standing.

Pedro Montoliú, on his book called "Madrid Villa y Corte" assures they were distributed as follows: "... 23 buildings belonging to lay clergy, 33 to friars and monks, 31 to nuns, 6 hospices, 13 schools, 16 oratories and chapels, 6 hermitages y 18 hospitals". It was considerable the urban space controlled by regular clergy and also big the interests of these religious orders in Madrid.

The male religious orders were the most affected on the disentail process, and so, lost more buildings, probably their biggest power surrounding the previous monarch. Their higher participation on politics and the control they exercised throughout the Inquisition made them worthy of a bigger popular hate.

The economical repercussion of the Mendizabal disentail in Madrid is very important. It promoted the liberalization of a big amount of land which was put on for sale, causing the owner change of more than 500 properties and put into circulation considerable amounts of money.

At the same time, urban soil became an interesting merchandise for those who had some money and wanted to do some kind of investment that could give benefits in a short time.

Another outstanding consequence was the urban area modification. New squares arised, such us Tirso de Molina or Vázquez de Mella, when demolishing the Merced and the Paciencia convents respectively. Street as Victoria or Arenal were enlarged, and even some new ones appeared such as Pasaje Matheu, Doctor Cortezo, Orellana, etc.

For the same reason, some squares were extended, among others Santo Domingo y Pontejos. All these changes improved the habitability, but also showed up the need of more enlargements and modifications.

On 1843, the queen Isabel II set the first stone of the Deputies Congress palace. One month later courts declare her "grown -up". She is thirteen plus 1 month.



On December 4th, 1808, the French troops were to come in from Chamartín de la Rosa,
with José Bonaparte at the front.

Being mayor José Vizcaíno, Marquis of Pontejos, a topographic map of the Villa was made, dividing it into 5 districts and 50 neighbourhoods.

During Angel García Loygorri order, a modern paving of streets is made and Puerta del Sol is reformed, installing in the same centre a huge bronze streetlight, gas fed.

At Plaza Mayor and at the request of chronicler Mesonero Romanos, the Felipe III equestrian statue, which stayed at the Casa de Campo, is installed. The Astronomic Observatory built up at San Blas little hill, at El Retiro, is finished. This last one was another of the projects that Carlos III had entrusted to Juan de Villanueva.

A great convulsion is caused in September 1850 with the demolition of Tócame Roque houses, where more than 50 of low class madrilenian families - popularly called "chisperos" - lived.

Big event keep on occurring at Madrid. They inaugurate the railway from the capital to Aranjuez, Deputies Congress palace, Royal Theatre, chotis - typical madrilenian dance and music - arrives and Plaza Mayor is definitely closed.

The revolutionary movement began at Vicálvaro - a village near Madrid - takes the mob to assault queen mother María Cristina de Borbón residences, as well as Marquis de Salamanca and Count of San Luis. At the Plaza de la Cebada police Francisco Chico is shoot. Espartero general enters Madrid, after the July revolution success and assumed government presidency.

The urban improvements at the Villa becomes to be the done thing. On 26th May, 1856, a royal decree orders the enlargement and reform of Puerta del Sol.

But the most important happening on those years is the arrival to Madrid of the waters coming from Lozoya river through the channel built at the expenses of the queen and having her name: Isabel II. To celebrate this extraordinary fact they install a fountain at Calle de San Bernardo, which launched water up to 90 feet high.



José Bonaparte (1768 - 1844), well known as "Pepe Botella",
was king of Spain from 1808 to 1813
as imposition of his brother Napoleón.

At that time, the Villa is divided into two quearters, 10 districts and 89 neighbourhoods. It has 153 public buildings, 7.000 private houses, 510 streets, 69 squares and 280.000 inhabitants.

On 19th July, 1860, the "Castro Plan" for the enlargement of Madrid is approved, the first big scope urban plan after the disentails politic, necessary to put in order present and near future of the city.

With this plan, the thesis of a radial grown of the Villa is abandoned and a development axis not involved with the arterial net from Plaza Mayor-Puerta del Sol is created.

Madrid development faces north, being limited with a road network known as the "Rondas", nowadays composed by Paseo Reina Victoria and Raimundo Fernández Villaverde, Joaquín Costa, Francisco Silvela and Doctor Esquerdo streets.

The "Castro Plan" foresees a growing of some 2.000 hectares towards north and northeast. The growth in the south is influenced and limited because of Manzanares river and the railway framework of Atocha.

Few years later, the results of the enlargement plan designed by engineer Carlos María de Castro would be seen.

With it, the middle-class settled, doing well out of the urban works made by Marquis of Salamanca, spelling to the outskirts the most depressed social class of Madrid.

There was a growth, with overpopulation, on the new neighbourhood of Tetuán de las Victorias, which joints Cuatro Caminos streets, besides the growing of some other hoods such as Prosperidad, Guindalera, Ventas or Vallecas.

The starting up of the "Castro Plan" obliged the demolition of the wall built on Felipe IV time. Definitively this plan, as almost all the urban plans written on Madrid history, was highly unfulfilled.

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