It is comprehensible that the disentail of
Church lands affected Madrid, as in this town, despite all demolitions made by
French monarch, there still were 146 religious buildings standing.
Pedro Montoliú, on his book called
"Madrid Villa y Corte" assures they were
distributed as follows: "... 23 buildings
belonging to lay clergy, 33 to friars and monks, 31 to nuns, 6 hospices, 13
schools, 16 oratories and chapels, 6 hermitages y 18 hospitals".
It was considerable the urban space controlled by regular clergy and also big
the interests of these religious orders in Madrid.
The male religious orders were the most
affected on the disentail process, and so, lost more buildings, probably their
biggest power surrounding the previous monarch. Their higher participation on
politics and the control they exercised throughout the Inquisition made them
worthy of a bigger popular hate.
The economical repercussion of the
Mendizabal disentail in Madrid is very important. It promoted the liberalization
of a big amount of land which was put on for sale, causing the owner change of
more than 500 properties and put into circulation considerable amounts of money.
At the same time, urban soil became an
interesting merchandise for those who had some money and wanted to do some kind
of investment that could give benefits in a short time.
Another outstanding consequence was the
urban area modification. New squares arised, such us Tirso de Molina or Vázquez
de Mella, when demolishing the Merced and the Paciencia convents respectively.
Street as Victoria or Arenal were enlarged, and even some new ones appeared such
as Pasaje Matheu, Doctor Cortezo, Orellana, etc.
For the same reason, some squares were
extended, among others Santo Domingo y Pontejos. All these changes improved the
habitability, but also showed up the need of more enlargements and
On 1843, the queen Isabel II set the first
stone of the Deputies Congress palace. One month later courts declare her
"grown -up". She is thirteen plus 1
On December 4th, 1808, the French troops were to come
in from Chamartín de la Rosa,
with José Bonaparte at the
Being mayor José Vizcaíno,
Marquis of Pontejos, a topographic map of the Villa was made, dividing it into 5
districts and 50 neighbourhoods.
During Angel García Loygorri order, a
modern paving of streets is made and Puerta del Sol is reformed, installing in
the same centre a huge bronze streetlight, gas fed.
At Plaza Mayor and at the request of
chronicler Mesonero Romanos, the Felipe III equestrian statue, which stayed at
the Casa de Campo, is installed. The Astronomic Observatory built up at San Blas
little hill, at El Retiro, is finished. This last one was another of the
projects that Carlos III had entrusted to Juan de Villanueva.
A great convulsion is caused in September
1850 with the demolition of Tócame Roque houses, where more than 50 of
low class madrilenian families - popularly called "chisperos" - lived.
Big event keep on occurring at Madrid. They
inaugurate the railway from the capital to Aranjuez, Deputies Congress palace,
Royal Theatre, chotis - typical madrilenian dance and
music - arrives and Plaza Mayor is definitely closed.
The revolutionary movement began at Vicálvaro
- a village near Madrid - takes the mob to assault
queen mother María Cristina de Borbón residences, as well as
Marquis de Salamanca and Count of San Luis. At the Plaza de la Cebada police
Francisco Chico is shoot. Espartero general enters Madrid, after the July
revolution success and assumed government presidency.
The urban improvements at the Villa becomes
to be the done thing. On 26th May, 1856, a royal decree orders the enlargement
and reform of Puerta del Sol.
But the most important happening on those
years is the arrival to Madrid of the waters coming from Lozoya river through
the channel built at the expenses of the queen and having her name: Isabel II.
To celebrate this extraordinary fact they install a fountain at Calle de San
Bernardo, which launched water up to 90 feet high.
José Bonaparte (1768 - 1844), well known as "Pepe
was king of Spain from 1808 to 1813
as imposition of his
At that time, the Villa is divided into two
quearters, 10 districts and 89 neighbourhoods. It has 153 public buildings,
7.000 private houses, 510 streets, 69 squares and 280.000 inhabitants.
On 19th July, 1860, the
"Castro Plan" for the enlargement of
Madrid is approved, the first big scope urban plan after the disentails politic,
necessary to put in order present and near future of the city.
With this plan, the thesis of a radial grown
of the Villa is abandoned and a development axis not involved with the arterial
net from Plaza Mayor-Puerta del Sol is created.
Madrid development faces north, being
limited with a road network known as the "Rondas",
nowadays composed by Paseo Reina Victoria and Raimundo Fernández
Villaverde, Joaquín Costa, Francisco Silvela and Doctor Esquerdo streets.
The "Castro Plan"
foresees a growing of some 2.000 hectares towards north and northeast. The
growth in the south is influenced and limited because of Manzanares river and
the railway framework of Atocha.
Few years later, the results of the
enlargement plan designed by engineer Carlos María de Castro would be
With it, the middle-class settled, doing
well out of the urban works made by Marquis of Salamanca, spelling to the
outskirts the most depressed social class of Madrid.
There was a growth, with overpopulation, on
the new neighbourhood of Tetuán de las Victorias, which joints Cuatro
Caminos streets, besides the growing of some other hoods such as Prosperidad,
Guindalera, Ventas or Vallecas.
The starting up of the
"Castro Plan" obliged the demolition of
the wall built on Felipe IV time. Definitively this plan, as almost all the
urban plans written on Madrid history, was highly unfulfilled.
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