Before his entry, Fernando VII sent a decree on which he added to the very noble and very loyal tittles that Madrid had from the Middle Ages, the one of "heroic", in recognition of madrilenians courage during the just finished war against Frenchmen.

Besides, before his arrival, some rumours had arose of his absolutism and the verifying of the persecution suffered by deputies who took part on Cádiz Courts.

In fact, the origin and boom of new satiric newspapers and those of critic political opinion did not last long, been persecuted and closed by absolutism and intransigence.

The new monarch paralysed all initiatives that José Bonaparte had started. He returned expropriated convents and churches to their old owners, mostly ecclesiasticals, who supported the new fernandian politics, wasting this situation to carry the city successfully through certain urban improvements, essential without the doubt.

Nevertheless, El Retiro began to be rebuilt on 1815, under the advise of architect López Aguado, one of the most important ones at the moment.

They planted new groves there, trenches were covered, they demolished the ruins of the remaining hermitages and of the Buen Retiro palace, except for the Casón and the Army Museum, which were rebuilt and adapted, but not so the Royal Porcelain Factory, that in a very short time could have start producing the lovely old-times figures.

On November 19th, 1819, the Prado Museum is opened to public. On 1820, after Riego rebellion, Fernando VII swears the constitution in the presence of the courts and three years later, madrilenians rises up when knowing that extraordinary courts have been concluded, demanding a regency to substitute Fernando VII.

One month later, courts leave Madrid upon arrival of French army. Royal family moves to Sevilla, returning to town on November 13th, 1823. A period of normality and reestablishment of development begins for Madrid.



King Carlos IV (1748 - 1819), betrayed by his son Fernando VII,
by his wife with favourite Manuel Godoy and by Napoleón.

At Retiro park it was built, for the exhibition of exotic and wild animals, an animal house; the Music Conservatory is created; the Stock Exchange is founded; the Turtle fountain to be placed at Red de San Luis is ended, and Puerta del Sol and adjacent streets are enlighten.

Part of magnificent Retiro park was opened to public under absolutist monarch's decision, which allowed madrilenians to know, enjoy and value with justice the space reserved until then for monarchs, their families and guests.

Two architects, Juan de Villanueva pupils, dominated official constructions and set the guidelines of the urban architecture: López Aguado and González Velázquez. If first one ideas were followed at the Retiro, the second's gave expression to Plaza de Oriente.

González Velázquez conceived for this square a circular space, delimited on one side by the Royal Palace, already existing, and on the other side by the Royal Theatre, which should be built on the space still being occupied by the old Caños del Peral theatre, where, provisionally, Spanish Courts had met on 1814, before they were definitively dissolved by the monarch.

This architect also took part in some other projects, such as Retiro's pier, the 2nd of May heroes obelisk, the Cristo de El Pardo church or the Medicine Royal College, located at Calle de Atocha, on which some other architects were also involved.

Antonio López Aguado, who was formed at San Fernando Fine Arts Academy and boarding school at Rome, took part in two of the most representative buildings of this period: Royal Theatre and Toledo Gate.

This gate was witness and direct victim of all politic ups and downs during the first third of 19th century. King José Bonaparte - well known as José I - placed the first stone, introducing a copy of the Bayonne Constitution, as well as some other reminders. On 1813, when French left, politic changed and the buried symbols were replaced.

The first stone was now accompanied with a copy of the Cádiz Constitution and some constitutional coins. The arrival of fernandian absolutism modified again the symbols to be buried at Toledo Gate. They were Madrid Diary newspaper, Foreign Guide and an almanac.



King Fernando VII (1784 - 1833), representing the enlightened despotism,
chased the freedoms obtained by Cádiz Courts.

It is slow building up promoted that on 1820, after Riego rebellion and the return to the constitutional government, buried remainders would be changed again. But the same happened on 1824 with the return to the absolutism, been the built finished on 1827.

To the eyes of the madrilenians it was curious and shocking this remainders "dance" and this interest to perpetuate the memory. This was the last gate and monumental entrance built in Madrid, which still was used as enter and exit control during 19th century.

Fernando VII death on October 24th, 1833, when his daughter Isabel was roughly three years old, let through a long regency which besides had to face a civil war promoted by carlists, who did not accept a woman's succession to the throne.

The liberalism, was making its way and quite soon economic and politic decisions began to be made, helping the raising of the bourgeoisie to more relevant positions.

A political measure of great social repercussion was the Mendizabal "Disentail" on 1837, following the suppression of religious orders. The biggest repercussion was on the country side, due to the modification of many field hectares, but it also impressed the city.

Three consequences can be mentioned:

First of all, soil liberalization, which allowed to open new streets and squares, lightening the urban framework.

Secondly, the substitution of disentailed buildings with new housing others, as they were beginning to be profitable, and which in the course of time and modifying some laws, became even more profitable.

The third one, the changes on the use of religious buildings, which became to be occupied by civil or military institutions.

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