When Madrid comes into the 19th century, the king is Carlos IV and the mayor is Juan de Morales Guzmán y Tovar.

The capital of Spain faces up to a new century, with the need to order the urban development that the Villa demands, so its population growth so the power of attraction that it had started to exert.

It continues the ornamental alterations. Into the Salón del Prado was installed the Apollo fountain and, close to it, starts the construction site of the Linares palace. It is found out a court intrigue against the king Carlos IV and he gives the order to arrest to the Prince of Asturias, who is taken to El Escorial, a town near Madrid

The development of the Villa has to wait. The year of 1808 is a dramatic year. The king abdicates. The population of Aranjuez incite to rebellion against Godoy, favourite of the king, lover of the queen and suspect to hold the regency. The French troops were to come in from Chamartin with José Bonaparte at the front.

On March 18th, 1808, the madrilenian mayor's office announces an edict in which it prays to all the madrilenian population that treat to the French army "with frankness, friendship and good faith". In March 24th arrives to Madrid Joaquin Murat, deputy of Napoleón Bonaparte in Spain.

The next day, Fernando VII makes his official entry in the Villa as the king. In April 10th, the new monarch travels to Bayonne (France) to have a meeting with Napoleón.

In May 1st, the Village of Madrid is preparing the great resistance. Murat is whistled in the streets and the next day the protest against the French army is generalized. The resistance, the armed fight, is going to be difficult. There are only 4.000 soldiers of the royal troops and 4.500 of garrison in Madrid.

At nine o'clock of May 2nd, in front of the palace, there are concentrated more than two thousand madrilenian ready to rise up in arms against the invaders. Suddenly, the French army opened fire, shooting with two pieces of artillery against the crowd. It starts the first battle.

The Village of Madrid fights as it could, with a minimum of arms, in the streets of Bailén, Mayor, Santo Domingo and in the Puerta del Sol. A group of madrilenians arrive to the palace of Monteleón, which is artillery depot, where the captain Daoiz comes.

Another captain, Velarde, convinces to the volunteers' colonel, Esteban Giráldez, to let go out to a military company, at the head of it is going the lieutenant Ruiz. They get that the artillery depot stir up and put the arms at the disposal of the Village.

In Monteleón, it happens a heroic resistance of sixty militaries and one hundred fifty civil people. Near two thousand French soldiers overcome the resistance in less than one hour. Passing the noon, the French army break the resistance of the courageous madrilenians.

In the streets where it had happened the cruelest clashes, it was scattered more than a thousand corpses. The fight journal has been as heroic as useless.

French army do not forgive the nerve of the madrilenians who has risen up in arms during the historic day of May 2nd and, in the dawn of the next day, it starts the executions of prisoners.

The Salón del Prado, the courtyard of the Buen Suceso, the gates of El Retiro and also the one of Segovia, the Casa de Campo and the Moncloa are stages of the executions that the painter Francisco de Goya gives expression into a heartbreaking canvas. Until May 5th, the executions of the madrilenians that started the rebellion were made at dawn.

"Execution on May 3rd, 1808"
Canvas painted by Francisco de Goya - Prado Museum

In July 20th, enter in Madrid José Bonaparte, brother of Napoleón, to take charge of the throne of Spain. In only ten days he abandoned Madrid, temporarily, when having news of the defeat of the French army in the battle of Bailén.

In December 2nd, the French king camped in the near village of Chamartín de la Rosa. Two days after, Madrid surrenders due to the French king's threats.

When José Bonaparte, proclaimed himself as king, installs in the palace of Bailén street, Madrid has suffered a very important loss of projection and advance since the death of king Carlos III. Madrid is a city where the mark of the modernity is shown exclusively in the Salón del Prado and in the Retiro.

Its streets are narrow, bad paved and lighting poorly. It running shorts the theatres, there are not decorous squares and the sidewalks, as well as the streets with a good pavement are shorts. The noise and the dirt are usual.

The five gates of the city walls are closed at ten o'clock in winter and one hour after in summer. The Puerta del Sol is the point where are concentrated the unemployed people, the water carriers and the muleteers. The rains converts the streets in streams, generally stinking.

It is organized travelling markets, where the immaculate and the quality products are conspicuous. But it is plentiful of taverns, brothels and inns.

The water supply is made through water carriers, despite of exist several canalizations, and the madrilenians only provide of five litres per person and day. It growths the number of public baths because the houses lack of its.

The frenzy of the pickaxe have not been stopped and in spite of the French invasion and the destructions caused in the architectonic patrimony of Madrid by the invader artillery, the own Council permits the demolition of churches and convents.

It stands out the church of Santiago, in the square of its own name, the church of San Martin, today square and street of the same name, the church of San Miguel, actually square and market and the church of San Juan situated in Plaza de Ramales, among others.

In the church of San Juan, it was buried the great painter Velázquez. With its demolition, the remains of the painter were lost. Actually, it is being carried out some excavations in order to find the foundations of the church and so that, the underground crypt where, as it is believed, the remains of Velázquez rests.

The destructive pickaxe arrived, just like that, to some convents, such us the nuns Carmelites of Santa Ana. and the monks Premostratenses of San Norberto. Both gave rise to squares so knowing such as Santa Ana and to the Mostenses.

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