Philip of Anjou was
appointment like king Charles II's inheritor. This notice was welcomed with
indifference in England, Holland and Portugal until French king Louis XIV
proclaims, in 1704, that both thrones can be compatible.
It is then, when these
countries allied with Austria, to neutralize the Gallic aspiration, generalizing
Madrid is the first Spanish
city that watches the confrontation by a real decree, that forces it to give a "contribution"
for military expenses.
Soldier at first of 18th
century prepared to shoot a spark shotgun.
He takes above a small pouch and
a wing of gunpowder, a long military frock coat with
wide hat, picked up
with buttons, so that it doesn't hinder him the vision.
The madrilenians should
contribute with one real (Spanish coin of 25 cents)
by fanega of cultivate lands (1.59 acres);
two real by fanega of vegetable garden, vineyard and olive grove; a five per
cent on leasings and rents of houses, meadows, mills and pastures; one real by
head of greater cattle and eight maravedíes (old
Spanish coin) by head of smaller cattle.
The decree strengthens
Philip's opponents momentarily, who fustrates an invading attempt in the
Portuguese Alentejo, winning old fidelities by the victory.
However, the allied
victories in Gibraltar, Aragon, Catalonia and Levant force to him to flee from
Madrid in 1706, leaving it on hands of the Austrian archduke.
The pretender's stay in the
city is not anything gratifying. Entered the 4 of August of that year, he has to
flee two months later, after verifying the Madrilenian hostility, that closes
doors and windows in his presence and acclaims Philip V, returned with French
and Andalusianses reinforcements.
Austrian archduke Charles's
landing in Barcelona
The war is unequal. In 1707,
Philip V defeat in Almansa (Albacete), sending to the Court one hundred flags
taken in the affray, that are deposited in the church of the Virgin of Atocha,
recovering immediately afterwards Zaragoza and Valencia. But in 1710, all
Philip V is defeated in the
outskirts of Zaragoza and has to retire to Valladolid, leaving Madrid on hands
of the archduke, who makes his entrance the 28 of September, after to have fixed
his quarters in Canillejas, Villaverde, Ciempozuelos and The Pardo.
In this second occasion, the
civic attitude stops to be passive because of the pretender's blame, that
dictates a series of decrees received with evident hostility.
In one of them and under
death penalty, it forces to the grandees of Spain and noblemen in favor of
Philip V to go to Toledo. Also, in twenty-four hours, should travel whichever
French remained in the Villa, although they belong to families settled down
On the other hand, the
madrilenians were forced to give their arms, specially those of fire. The same
capital punishment prevails for those were being corresponded with, in favor of
Philip V, those that speaks bad of the government or those that came from
The church is also forced to
present inventory of its goods, auctioning a great part of them -
patens, mostrances, large cups, ornaments
-, obtaining with it to propagate the news that, combatting to the archduke, the
crusade against the heretics is being impelled. The situation, for the Austrian,
The battle of Villaviciosa
cleared the way for Philip's V definitive victory
in the so called War of
Spanish Succession. (1700 - 1714)
Harassed by fighter forces
that isolated Madrid, surrounded by a population that did not stopped to shout
their sympaties by king Philip V, in spite of the execution threats and
incapable at least to create a cavalry regiment - nor
confiscating the precise animals by lack of volunteers that mounts them
-, the 9 of November leave their ephemeral Court, hours before the Bourbon took
it once and for all.
The battle of Villaviciosa
of Tajuña (Guadalajara) sealed the warlike conflict that same year.
The allied casualties are
heavy with more than 3.000 deads and 12.000 prisoners, losing 50 flags, 14
standards, 21 cannons, 2 mortars, almost all the equipment, recovering most of
the jewels despoiled to the churches of Madrid and Toledo, restored without
One year later, the archduke
Carlos abandons his followers, embarking from Barcelona to take the Austrian
imperial crown (September 27, 1711),
leaving that city in a critical situation until its capture and sacking another
month of September, that of 1714, in which loses its jurisdictions and it is
subjected to those of Castile.
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