It would be necessary to change sites of ministries, clear out spaces to commemorate historic events, - Plaza del Dos de Mayo - in order to push Madrid into the future, - Plaza of Europa - to transfer the remains of illustrious Spaniards to the National Pantheon, to change names of streets - Numancia, Sagunto, Covadonga, Padilla, Bravo, Maldonado - to evoke persons and pages in the history of the nation.

None of this had been done by the Austrian-Hapsburgs in the 16th and 17th centuries nor by the Bourbons later on, - those two, what dynasties we have had! - for, given their special character, they took no thought at all of conveniences nor the ornament of the city. It is not understood that their neglect should blind them to what they saw daily before their eyes. It was all left to be done by the revolution.

To the grandeur of transformation of the interior of the city corresponds the faultless critique for expanding the outer areas. Fernández de los Ríos approves in no way of Castro's plan, an arbitrary checkerboard that would put a corset around the growth of the city.

The outer limits, with small modifications, would be all that would remain, except that they would transform the fosse into an avenue that would ensure rapid circular communication.

Having discarded the checkerboarding plan, and Castro's proposals abandoned as costly and unworkable, the only thing left for City Hall and government to do is "to give human life to the expanded zones, bringing important offices to the extreme ends of Madrid."

Which would require them to proceed with all urgency to the razing of clay-walls that isolated the old inner part of the city from the neighborhoods grown-up outside the walls, and to open great routes of communications to connect the inner areas with the outer by means of rail, omnibus and low-cost carriage.

Thus, the private construction will be promoted and the private interests will bring merchants and industrialists to establish their warehouses and factories there.

Like the good progressive that he was, Fernández de los Ríos had no doubt that there would be an abundance of buyers, once City Hall and the government would set up communications, and revitalize and make that zone suitably decent.

The revolution had not been based on projects for great, straight-lined streets, nor for the opening up of great rectangular or circular squares, such as that proposed of Plaza de la Independencia, patterned on a lesser scale after the l'Etoile de Paris; the new order of the revolution would not be limited to building on the old lines of the city or extending over the new lines of the expanded areas the rationality of right-angles or circles.

It would be necessary to endow the city with all that would contribute to progress, welfare and harmony among its inhabitants.

To those well-ordered streets and plazas belonged a society that would provide day-nurseries for children of mothers obliged to work.

But also to provide shelters for the poor, orphanages, establishments to benefit the halt, the blind and the mentally deranged, hospitals for the diseased, prisons that might be transformed into agricultural colonies where prisoners would work in the open air, schools for children, centers for adult learning, inexpensive bath-houses for public hygiene, and cemeteries to receive the dead.

And logically, those institutions which constitute the pride of all modern capitals. A Stock Exchange, a National Library, a central Market-place,...

Sum and substance of this vision of the new structuring and new social order of the city is the proposal to create cheap housing for decent working people.

Nothing judgmental in this, but rather a very coherent expression of revolutionary thought, in proposing the segmentation of spaces in the city by social classes, the dream of all progressive urbanism, from now and into the '30's decade of the 20th century.

Useless is it to seek improvement of the worker's dwelling if all that is offered is to exchange his garret in the old quarters of the city for a garret in the expanded areas, as they were doing in order to use even the least habitable spaces. For every worker's family a home and a garden!

This thinking, a precursor to that of Arturo Soria, would be the basis of the creation of cooperative and savings societies with the aim that worthy workmen could dispose of sufficient money to pay for a house in one of the scheduled colonies.

And not by chance, these will be constructed outside and far from the old city, on the edges of great routes of communication, and situated radially from the center of the city.

Four labor neighborhoods, of more than a hundred houses each one, should grow, - if the revolution reached its objectives - behind the San Bernardino's convent, Puerta de Toledo, Paseo de las Delicias and in Las Ventas.

And surrounding it all, at least ten million trees would give the areas adjacent to Madrid an appearance, again, similar to those around Paris.

Madrid, well-ordered and dynamic in its interior, prosperous and spacious in its expanded areas, socially segmented, surrounded by verdure at its circumference and with good communications in outer areas. Such was the urban utopia of the revolutionaries of 1868.!

Not many years after Fernández de los Ríos was shaping his plans, visitors who arrived from abroad, found on approaching Madrid, - as Lucas Mallada writes in l890 - neither great shops nor great factories.

Nor did they find neatly laid-out villages, nor lovely country houses laden with flowers, nor groves of trees, steams, islands and waterfalls, nor parks, pools and woods like those that embellished outskirts of many foreign cities. And once they had entered the city, the panorama was no more exciting.

Madrid kept, in the 1880's and 1890's, that air of being a town, a city enclosed within itself, the countryside penetrating to its viscera by streets where milking she-donkeys and goats pastured in little plazas, such places symbolic in rustic meadows of the Nation itself.

Water-carriers still climbed to high floors of houses and in the Puerta del Sol a motley crew of people kept up a permanent hubbub.

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